Teachers should consider this principle ifstudents are not acting on their feedback OR they want to take their feedback to the next level.

Students will often make mistakes due to one of the following reasons. The first is that they know the content and make a process-based error. For example, they might rush or neglect a step in executing a task. The second reason might be that the student has yet to master the content and makes the error due to a lack of understanding. For the first group, simply flagging errors and drawing their attention to them will be enough to correct the issue moving forward. They will recognize the error and know what they need to do to rectify it.

For students in the second group, they actually don’t know what to do to improve, so simply flagging errors is not enough. These students need to be directed to the error and instructed on how to do it correctly.

In addition to high-level feedback, they also need resources to successfully respond to the teacher’s feedback. Examples of such resources include directing the student to use a dictionary, providing links to YouTube or self-teaching resources, or connecting the student with a more knowledgeable colleague, exemplar, or worked example. This might also be the time for 1:1, small group, or whole class reteaching.

When this principle is in action:

The teacher…

– Clearly identifies what the student has done well, and where the student needs to improve.
– Not only flags errors or areas of concern, but connects this to strategies, resources, and further learning to support the student’s growth.
– Keyset can easily insert links to reteaching videos and class resources with the touch of a button.

The student…

– Knows where the gaps in their knowledge and understanding is and what they need to do to improve next time around.


Student model of feedback

Black & Wiliam, Assessment and classroom learning


A scholarly approach to solving the feedback dilemma in practice